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THE PROCESS OF LEARNING IN PSYCHOLOGY

Cognitive and observational Conditioning 

Cognitive Learning Theory

Cognitive learning explains the fact that learning requires cognition, or the influence of an organism’ through process.  
One of the best and famous experiment is Tolman’s classic study. Edward Tolman builds a maze to learn about rat’s latent learning. He found out that rats process the information rather than react from a stimulus. Three groups of rats were put in the maze, some rats received food, and some did not.  
Tolman learned that some rats in the second group wandered around the maze for several days and learned where all the blind alleys were, the wrong turns and the right ones. Tolman called it the Latent Learning, where learning remains hidden until its application becomes useful. The rats have formed a cognitive map, a mental representation of the environment Edward Tolman's Maze map
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Observational Conditioning

The other type of learning that departs from the traditional theories of Pavlov and Skinner is Observational Learning. It is learned through watching others perform, or model, certain actions. One experiment, Bandura’s “Bobo doll” Study, showed that children would imitate the aggressive actions of a model even when there is no reinforcement for doing so.  
Four Elements takes place in the Observational Learning.  

Attention: The learner must first pay attention to the model.

Memory:  The learner must be able to retain the memory of what the model did.

Imitation: The learner must be capable of reproducing, or imitating, the actions of the model.

Motivation:  The learner must have the desire to perform the action.

Bandura's BoBo Doll

 

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